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Nginx 0.7.x + PHP 5.2.10(FastCGI)搭建胜过Apache十倍的Web服务器(第5版)[转载]

[文章作者:张宴 本文版本:v5.4 最后修改:2009.06.26 转载:http://blog.s135.com/nginx_php_v5/]

  前言:本文是我撰写的关于搭建“Nginx + PHP(FastCGI)”Web服务器的第5篇文章。本系列文章作为国内最早详细介绍 Nginx + PHP 安装、配置、使用的资料之一,为推动 Nginx 在国内的发展产生了积极的作用。这是一篇关于Nginx 0.7.x系列版本的文章,安装、配置方式与第4篇文章相差不大,但增加了MySQL安装配置的信息、PHP 5.2.10 的 php-fpm 补丁。Nginx 0.7.x系列版本虽然为开发版,但在很多大型网站的生产环境中已经使用。

  链接:《2007年9月的第1版》、《2007年12月的第2版》、《2008年6月的第3版》、《2008年8月的第4版

  

  Nginx ("engine x") 是一个高性能的 HTTP 和反向代理服务器,也是一个 IMAP/POP3/SMTP 代理服务器。 Nginx 是由 Igor Sysoev 为俄罗斯访问量第二的 Rambler.ru 站点开发的,它已经在该站点运行超过两年半了。Igor 将源代码以类BSD许可证的形式发布。

  Nginx 超越 Apache 的高性能和稳定性,使得国内使用 Nginx 作为 Web 服务器的网站也越来越多,其中包括新浪博客新浪播客网易新闻等门户网站频道,六间房56.com等视频分享网站,Discuz!官方论坛水木社区等知名论坛,豆瓣YUPOO相册海内SNS迅雷在线等新兴Web 2.0网站。

 

 


  Nginx 的官方中文维基:http://wiki.nginx.org/NginxChs

  在高并发连接的情况下,Nginx是Apache服务器不错的替代品。Nginx同时也可以作为7层负载均衡服务器来使用。根据我的测试结果,Nginx 0.7.61 + PHP 5.2.10 (FastCGI) 可以承受3万以上的并发连接数,相当于同等环境下Apache的10倍

  根据我的经验,4GB内存的服务器+Apache(prefork模式)一般只能处理3000个并发连接,因为它们将占用3GB以上的内存,还得为系统预留1GB的内存。我曾经就有两台Apache服务器,因为在配置文件中设置的MaxClients为4000,当Apache并发连接数达到3800时,导致服务器内存和Swap空间用满而崩溃。

  而这台 Nginx 0.7.61 + PHP 5.2.10 (FastCGI) 服务器在3万并发连接下,开启的10个Nginx进程消耗150M内存(15M*10=150M),开启的64个php-cgi进程消耗1280M内存(20M*64=1280M),加上系统自身消耗的内存,总共消耗不到2GB内存。如果服务器内存较小,完全可以只开启25个php-cgi进程,这样php-cgi消耗的总内存数才500M。

  在3万并发连接下,访问Nginx 0.7.61 + PHP 5.2.10 (FastCGI) 服务器的PHP程序,仍然速度飞快。下图为Nginx的状态监控页面,显示的活动连接数为28457(关于Nginx的监控页配置,会在本文接下来所给出的Nginx配置文件中写明):

  

  我生产环境下的两台Nginx + PHP5(FastCGI)服务器,跑多个一般复杂的纯PHP动态程序,单台Nginx + PHP5(FastCGI)服务器跑PHP动态程序的处理能力已经超过“700次请求/秒”,相当于每天可以承受6000万(700*60*60*24=60480000)的访问量(更多信息见此),而服务器的系统负载也不高:

  

 

 

 


 

  下面是用100个并发连接分别去压生产环境中同一负载均衡器VIP下、提供相同服务的两台服务器,一台为Nginx,另一台为Apache,Nginx每秒处理的请求数是Apache的两倍多,Nginx服务器的系统负载、CPU使用率远低于Apache:

  你可以将连接数开到10000~30000,去压Nginx和Apache上的phpinfo.php,这是用浏览器访问Nginx上的phpinfo.php一切正常,而访问Apache服务器的phpinfo.php,则是该页无法显示。4G内存的服务器,即使再优化,Apache也很难在“webbench -c 30000 -t 60 http://xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/phpinfo.php”的压力情况下正常访问,而调整参数优化后的Nginx可以。

  webbench 下载地址:http://blog.s135.com/post/288/

  注意:webbench 做压力测试时,该软件自身也会消耗CPU和内存资源,为了测试准确,请将 webbench 安装在别的服务器上。

  测试结果:##### Nginx + PHP #####

 

引用
[root@localhost webbench-1.5]# webbench -c 100 -t 30 http://192.168.1.21/phpinfo.php
Webbench – Simple Web Benchmark 1.5
Copyright (c) Radim Kolar 1997-2004, GPL Open Source Software.

Benchmarking: GET http://192.168.1.21/phpinfo.php
100 clients, running 30 sec.

Speed=102450 pages/min, 16490596 bytes/sec.
Requests: 51225 susceed, 0 failed.

top – 14:06:13 up 27 days, 2:25, 2 users, load average: 14.57, 9.89, 6.51
Tasks: 287 total, 4 running, 283 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie
Cpu(s): 49.9% us, 6.7% sy, 0.0% ni, 41.4% id, 1.1% wa, 0.1% hi, 0.8% si
Mem: 6230016k total, 2959468k used, 3270548k free, 635992k buffers
Swap: 2031608k total, 3696k used, 2027912k free, 1231444k cached

  测试结果:##### Apache + PHP #####
 

引用
[root@localhost webbench-1.5]# webbench -c 100 -t 30 http://192.168.1.27/phpinfo.php
Webbench – Simple Web Benchmark 1.5
Copyright (c) Radim Kolar 1997-2004, GPL Open Source Software.

Benchmarking: GET http://192.168.1.27/phpinfo.php
100 clients, running 30 sec.

Speed=42184 pages/min, 31512914 bytes/sec.
Requests: 21092 susceed, 0 failed.

top – 14:06:20 up 27 days, 2:13, 2 users, load average: 62.15, 26.36, 13.42
Tasks: 318 total, 7 running, 310 sleeping, 0 stopped, 1 zombie
Cpu(s): 80.4% us, 10.6% sy, 0.0% ni, 7.9% id, 0.1% wa, 0.1% hi, 0.9% si
Mem: 6230016k total, 3075948k used, 3154068k free, 379896k buffers
Swap: 2031608k total, 12592k used, 2019016k free, 1117868k cached

 


  为什么Nginx的性能要比Apache高得多?这得益于Nginx使用了最新的epoll(Linux 2.6内核)和kqueue(freebsd)网络I/O模型,而Apache则使用的是传统的select模型。目前Linux下能够承受高并发访问的Squid、Memcached都采用的是epoll网络I/O模型。

  处理大量的连接的读写,Apache所采用的select网络I/O模型非常低效。下面用一个比喻来解析Apache采用的select模型和Nginx采用的epoll模型进行之间的区别:

  假设你在大学读书,住的宿舍楼有很多间房间,你的朋友要来找你。select版宿管大妈就会带着你的朋友挨个房间去找,直到找到你为止。而epoll版宿管大妈会先记下每位同学的房间号,你的朋友来时,只需告诉你的朋友你住在哪个房间即可,不用亲自带着你的朋友满大楼找人。如果来了10000个人,都要找自己住这栋楼的同学时,select版和epoll版宿管大妈,谁的效率更高,不言自明。同理,在高并发服务器中,轮询I/O是最耗时间的操作之一,select和epoll的性能谁的性能更高,同样十分明了。

 


  安装步骤:
  (系统要求:Linux 2.6+ 内核,本文中的Linux操作系统为CentOS 5.3,另在RedHat AS4上也安装成功)

  一、获取相关开源程序:
  1、【适用CentOS操作系统】利用CentOS Linux系统自带的yum命令安装、升级所需的程序库(RedHat等其他Linux发行版可从安装光盘中找到这些程序库的RPM包,进行安装):
 

sudo -s
LANG=C
yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ autoconf libjpeg libjpeg-devel libpng libpng-devel freetype freetype-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel zlib zlib-devel glibc glibc-devel glib2 glib2-devel bzip2 bzip2-devel ncurses ncurses-devel curl curl-devel e2fsprogs e2fsprogs-devel krb5 krb5-devel libidn libidn-devel openssl openssl-devel openldap openldap-devel nss_ldap openldap-clients openldap-servers

  2、【适用RedHat操作系统】RedHat等其他Linux发行版可从安装光盘中找到这些程序库的RPM包(事先可通过类似“rpm -qa | grep libjpeg”的命令查看所需的RPM包是否存在,通常是“xxx-devel”不存在,需要安装)。RedHat可以直接利用CentOS的RPM包安装,以下是RPM包下载网址:
  ①、RedHat AS4 & CentOS 4
  http://mirrors.163.com/centos/4/os/i386/CentOS/RPMS/
  http://mirrors.163.com/centos/4/os/x86_64/CentOS/RPMS/

  ②、RedHat AS5 & CentOS 5
  http://mirrors.163.com/centos/5/os/i386/CentOS/
  http://mirrors.163.com/centos/5/os/x86_64/CentOS/

  ③、RPM包搜索网站
  http://rpm.pbone.net/
  http://www.rpmfind.net/

  ④、RedHat AS4 系统环境,通常情况下缺少的支持包安装:
  Ⅰ、i386 系统
 

  Ⅱ、x86_64 系统
 

  3、【适用CentOS、RedHat及其它Linux操作系统】下载程序源码包:
  本文中提到的所有开源软件为截止到2009年06月26日的最新稳定版。
  ①、从软件的官方网站下载:
 

mkdir -p /data0/software
cd /data0/software
wget http://sysoev.ru/nginx/nginx-0.7.61.tar.gz
wget http://www.php.net/get/php-5.2.10.tar.gz/from/this/mirror
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/phpfpm/php-5.2.10-fpm-0.5.11.diff.gz
wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/MySQL-5.1/mysql-5.1.35.tar.gz/from/http://mysql.he.net/
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.tar.gz
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz?modtime=1171868460&big_mirror=0"
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz?modtime=1194463373&big_mirror=0"
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/memcache-2.2.5.tgz
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz?modtime=1175740843&big_mirror=0"
wget ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-7.9.tar.gz
wget http://bart.eaccelerator.net/source/0.9.5.3/eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/imagick-2.2.2.tgz

  ②、从blog.s135.com下载(比较稳定,只允许在本站,或者在Linux/Unix下通过Wget、Curl等命令下载以下软件):
 

mkdir -p /data0/software
cd /data0/software
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/nginx/nginx-0.7.61.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/php/php-5.2.10.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/phpfpm/php-5.2.10-fpm-0.5.11.diff.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mysql/mysql-5.1.35.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/memcache/memcache-2.2.5.tgz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/pcre/pcre-7.9.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/eaccelerator/eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/pdo/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/imagick-2.2.2.tgz

  二、安装PHP 5.2.10(FastCGI模式)
  1、编译安装PHP 5.2.10所需的支持库:
 


 

tar zxvf libiconv-1.13.tar.gz
cd libiconv-1.13/
./configure –prefix=/usr/local
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/
./configure
make
make install
/sbin/ldconfig
cd libltdl/
./configure –enable-ltdl-install
make
make install
cd ../../

tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
cd mhash-0.9.9.9/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.la /usr/lib/libmcrypt.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.a /usr/lib/libmhash.a
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.la /usr/lib/libmhash.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so /usr/lib/libmhash.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1

tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
cd mcrypt-2.6.8/
/sbin/ldconfig
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

 


  2、编译安装MySQL 5.1.35
 

/usr/sbin/groupadd mysql
/usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql mysql
tar zxvf mysql-5.1.35.tar.gz
cd mysql-5.1.35/
./configure –prefix=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/ –enable-assembler –with-extra-charsets=complex –enable-thread-safe-client –with-big-tables –with-readline –with-ssl –with-embedded-server –enable-local-infile –with-plugins=innobase
make && make install
chmod +w /usr/local/webserver/mysql
chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/webserver/mysql
cd ../

 


  附:以下为附加步骤,如果你想在这台服务器上运行MySQL数据库,则执行以下两步。如果你只是希望让PHP支持MySQL扩展库,能够连接其他服务器上的MySQL数据库,那么,以下两步无需执行。

  ①、创建MySQL数据库存放目录
 

mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/data/
chown -R mysql:mysql /data0/mysql/

  ②、以mysql用户帐号的身份建立数据表:
 

/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db –basedir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql –datadir=/data0/mysql/3306/data –user=mysql

  ③、创建my.cnf配置文件:
 

vi /data0/mysql/3306/my.cnf

  输入以下内容:
 

引用
[client]
default-character-set = utf8
port = 3306
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock

[mysql]
prompt="(\u:blog.s135.com:)[\d]> "
no-auto-rehash

[mysqld]
#default-character-set = utf8
user = mysql
port = 3306
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock
basedir = /usr/local/webserver/mysql
datadir = /data0/mysql/3306/data
open_files_limit = 10240
back_log = 600
max_connections = 3000
max_connect_errors = 6000
table_cache = 614
external-locking = FALSE
max_allowed_packet = 32M
sort_buffer_size = 2M
join_buffer_size = 2M
thread_cache_size = 300
thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 32M
query_cache_limit = 2M
query_cache_min_res_unit = 2k
default-storage-engine = MyISAM
default_table_type = MyISAM
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED
tmp_table_size = 246M
max_heap_table_size = 246M
long_query_time = 1
log_long_format
log-bin = /data0/mysql/3306/binlog
binlog_cache_size = 4M
binlog_format = MIXED
max_binlog_cache_size = 8M
max_binlog_size = 512M
expire_logs_days = 7
key_buffer_size = 256M
read_buffer_size = 1M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 16M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover

skip-name-resolve
master-connect-retry = 10
slave-skip-errors = 1032,1062,126,1114,1146,1048,1396

server-id = 1

innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 2048M
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:1024M:autoextend
innodb_file_io_threads = 4
innodb_thread_concurrency = 8
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 2
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M
innodb_log_file_size = 128M
innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 90
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120
innodb_file_per_table = 0
[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 32M

  ④、创建管理MySQL数据库的shell脚本:
 

vi /data0/mysql/3306/mysql

  输入以下内容(这里的用户名admin和密码12345678接下来的步骤会创建):

代码
        

  1. #!/bin/sh
  2.     

  3.  
  4.     

  5. mysql_port=3306
  6.     

  7. mysql_username="admin"
  8.     

  9. mysql_password="12345678"
  10.     

  11.  
  12.     

  13. function_start_mysql()
  14.     

  15. {
  16.     

  17. printf "Starting MySQL…\n"
  18.     

  19. /bin/sh /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe –defaults-file=/data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/my.cnf 2>&1 > /dev/null &
  20.     

  21. }
  22.     

  23.  
  24.     

  25. function_stop_mysql()
  26.     

  27. {
  28.     

  29. printf "Stoping MySQL…\n"
  30.     

  31. /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /tmp/mysql.sock shutdown
  32.     

  33. }
  34.     

  35.  
  36.     

  37. function_restart_mysql()
  38.     

  39. {
  40.     

  41. printf "Restarting MySQL…\n"
  42.     

  43. function_stop_mysql
  44.     

  45. sleep 5
  46.     

  47. function_start_mysql
  48.     

  49. }
  50.     

  51.  
  52.     

  53. function_kill_mysql()
  54.     

  55. {
  56.     

  57. kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'bin/mysqld_safe' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
  58.     

  59. kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'libexec/mysqld' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
  60.     

  61. }
  62.     

  63.  
  64.     

  65. if [ "$1" = "start" ]; then
  66.     

  67. function_start_mysql
  68.     

  69. elif [ "$1" = "stop" ]; then
  70.     

  71. function_stop_mysql
  72.     

  73. elif [ "$1" = "restart" ]; then
  74.     

  75. function_restart_mysql
  76.     

  77. elif [ "$1" = "kill" ]; then
  78.     

  79. function_kill_mysql
  80.     

  81. else
  82.     

  83. printf "Usage: /data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/mysql {start|stop|restart|kill}\n"
  84.     

  85. fi

  ⑤、赋予shell脚本可执行权限:
 

chmod +x /data0/mysql/3306/mysql

  ⑥、启动MySQL:
 

/data0/mysql/3306/mysql start

  ⑦、通过命令行登录管理MySQL服务器(提示输入密码时直接回车):
 

/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql -u root -p -S /tmp/mysql.sock

  ⑧、输入以下SQL语句,创建一个具有root权限的用户(admin)和密码(12345678):
 

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'admin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '12345678';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'admin'@'127.0.0.1' IDENTIFIED BY '12345678';

  ⑨、(可选)停止MySQL:
 

/data0/mysql/3306/mysql stop

 


  3、编译安装PHP(FastCGI模式)
 

tar zxvf php-5.2.10.tar.gz
gzip -cd php-5.2.10-fpm-0.5.11.diff.gz | patch -d php-5.2.10 -p1
cd php-5.2.10/
./configure –prefix=/usr/local/webserver/php –with-config-file-path=/usr/local/webserver/php/etc –with-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql –with-mysqli=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_config –with-iconv-dir=/usr/local –with-freetype-dir –with-jpeg-dir –with-png-dir –with-zlib –with-libxml-dir=/usr –enable-xml –disable-rpath –enable-discard-path –enable-safe-mode –enable-bcmath –enable-shmop –enable-sysvsem –enable-inline-optimization –with-curl –with-curlwrappers –enable-mbregex –enable-fastcgi –enable-fpm –enable-force-cgi-redirect –enable-mbstring –with-mcrypt –with-gd –enable-gd-native-ttf –with-openssl –with-mhash –enable-pcntl –enable-sockets –with-ldap –with-ldap-sasl –with-xmlrpc –enable-zip –enable-soap –without-pear
make ZEND_EXTRA_LIBS='-liconv'
make install
cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
cd ../

 


  4、编译安装PHP5扩展模块
 

tar zxvf memcache-2.2.5.tgz
cd memcache-2.2.5/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
cd eaccelerator-0.9.5.3/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure –enable-eaccelerator=shared –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
cd PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config –with-pdo-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf ImageMagick.tar.gz
cd ImageMagick-6.5.1-2/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf imagick-2.2.2.tgz
cd imagick-2.2.2/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../
 

  5、修改php.ini文件
  手工修改:查找/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini中的extension_dir = "./"
  修改为extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"
  并在此行后增加以下几行,然后保存:
  extension = "memcache.so"
  extension = "pdo_mysql.so"
  extension = "imagick.so"

  再查找output_buffering = Off
  修改为output_buffering = On

  自动修改:若嫌手工修改麻烦,可执行以下shell命令,自动完成对php.ini文件的修改:
 

sed -i 's#extension_dir = "./"#extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"\nextension = "memcache.so"\nextension = "pdo_mysql.so"\nextension = "imagick.so"\n#' /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i 's#output_buffering = Off#output_buffering = On#' /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i "s#; always_populate_raw_post_data = On#always_populate_raw_post_data = On#g" /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini

  6、配置eAccelerator加速PHP:
 

mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini

  按shift+g键跳到配置文件的最末尾,加上以下配置信息:
 

引用
[eaccelerator]
zend_extension="/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/eaccelerator.so"
eaccelerator.shm_size="64"
eaccelerator.cache_dir="/usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache"
eaccelerator.enable="1"
eaccelerator.optimizer="1"
eaccelerator.check_mtime="1"
eaccelerator.debug="0"
eaccelerator.filter=""
eaccelerator.shm_max="0"
eaccelerator.shm_ttl="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_only="0"
eaccelerator.compress="1"
eaccelerator.compress_level="9"

 


  7、创建www用户和组,以及供blog.s135.com和www.s135.com两个虚拟主机使用的目录:
 

/usr/sbin/groupadd www
/usr/sbin/useradd -g www www
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/blog
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/blog
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/blog
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/www
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/www

  8、创建php-fpm配置文件(php-fpm是为PHP打的一个FastCGI管理补丁,可以平滑变更php.ini配置而无需重启php-cgi):
  在/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/目录中创建php-fpm.conf文件:
 

rm -f /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf

  输入以下内容(如果您安装 Nginx + PHP 用于程序调试,请将以下的<value name="display_errors">0</value>改为<value name="display_errors">1</value>,以便显示PHP错误信息,否则,Nginx 会报状态为500的空白错误页):

代码
        

  1. <?xml version="1.0" ?>
  2.     

  3. <configuration>
  4.     

  5.  
  6.     

  7. All relative paths in this config are relative to php's install prefix
  8.     

  9.  
  10.     

  11. <section name="global_options">
  12.     

  13.  
  14.     

  15. Pid file
  16.     

  17. <value name="pid_file">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.pid</value>
  18.     

  19.  
  20.     

  21. Error log file
  22.     

  23. <value name="error_log">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.log</value>
  24.     

  25.  
  26.     

  27. Log level
  28.     

  29. <value name="log_level">notice</value>
  30.     

  31.  
  32.     

  33. When this amount of php processes exited with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS …
  34.     

  35. <value name="emergency_restart_threshold">10</value>
  36.     

  37.  
  38.     

  39. … in a less than this interval of time, a graceful restart will be initiated.
  40.     

  41. Useful to work around accidental curruptions in accelerator's shared memory.
  42.     

  43. <value name="emergency_restart_interval">1m</value>
  44.     

  45.  
  46.     

  47. Time limit on waiting child's reaction on signals from master
  48.     

  49. <value name="process_control_timeout">5s</value>
  50.     

  51.  
  52.     

  53. Set to 'no' to debug fpm
  54.     

  55. <value name="daemonize">yes</value>
  56.     

  57.  
  58.     

  59. </section>
  60.     

  61.  
  62.     

  63. <workers>
  64.     

  65.  
  66.     

  67. <section name="pool">
  68.     

  69.  
  70.     

  71. Name of pool. Used in logs and stats.
  72.     

  73. <value name="name">default</value>
  74.     

  75.  
  76.     

  77. Address to accept fastcgi requests on.
  78.     

  79. Valid syntax is 'ip.ad.re.ss:port' or just 'port' or '/path/to/unix/socket'
  80.     

  81. <value name="listen_address">127.0.0.1:9000</value>
  82.     

  83.  
  84.     

  85. <value name="listen_options">
  86.     

  87.  
  88.     

  89. Set listen(2) backlog
  90.     

  91. <value name="backlog">-1</value>
  92.     

  93.  
  94.     

  95. Set permissions for unix socket, if one used.
  96.     

  97. In Linux read/write permissions must be set in order to allow connections from web server.
  98.     

  99. Many BSD-derrived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
  100.     

  101. <value name="owner"></value>
  102.     

  103. <value name="group"></value>
  104.     

  105. <value name="mode">0666</value>
  106.     

  107. </value>
  108.     

  109.  
  110.     

  111. Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers.
  112.     

  113. <value name="php_defines">
  114.     

  115. <value name="sendmail_path">/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i</value>
  116.     

  117. <value name="display_errors">1</value>
  118.     

  119. </value>
  120.     

  121.  
  122.     

  123. Unix user of processes
  124.     

  125. <value name="user">www</value>
  126.     

  127.  
  128.     

  129. Unix group of processes
  130.     

  131. <value name="group">www</value>
  132.     

  133.  
  134.     

  135. Process manager settings
  136.     

  137. <value name="pm">
  138.     

  139.  
  140.     

  141. Sets style of controling worker process count.
  142.     

  143. Valid values are 'static' and 'apache-like'
  144.     

  145. <value name="style">static</value>
  146.     

  147.  
  148.     

  149. Sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be served.
  150.     

  151. Equivalent to Apache MaxClients directive.
  152.     

  153. Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment in original php.fcgi
  154.     

  155. Used with any pm_style.
  156.     

  157. <value name="max_children">128</value>
  158.     

  159.  
  160.     

  161. Settings group for 'apache-like' pm style
  162.     

  163. <value name="apache_like">
  164.     

  165.  
  166.     

  167. Sets the number of server processes created on startup.
  168.     

  169. Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
  170.     

  171. <value name="StartServers">20</value>
  172.     

  173.  
  174.     

  175. Sets the desired minimum number of idle server processes.
  176.     

  177. Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
  178.     

  179. <value name="MinSpareServers">5</value>
  180.     

  181.  
  182.     

  183. Sets the desired maximum number of idle server processes.
  184.     

  185. Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
  186.     

  187. <value name="MaxSpareServers">35</value>
  188.     

  189.  
  190.     

  191. </value>
  192.     

  193.  
  194.     

  195. </value>
  196.     

  197.  
  198.     

  199. The timeout (in seconds) for serving a single request after which the worker process will be terminated
  200.     

  201. Should be used when 'max_execution_time' ini option does not stop script execution for some reason
  202.     

  203. '0s' means 'off'
  204.     

  205. <value name="request_terminate_timeout">0s</value>
  206.     

  207.  
  208.     

  209. The timeout (in seconds) for serving of single request after which a php backtrace will be dumped to slow.log file
  210.     

  211. '0s' means 'off'
  212.     

  213. <value name="request_slowlog_timeout">0s</value>
  214.     

  215.  
  216.     

  217. The log file for slow requests
  218.     

  219. <value name="slowlog">logs/slow.log</value>
  220.     

  221.  
  222.     

  223. Set open file desc rlimit
  224.     

  225. <value name="rlimit_files">51200</value>
  226.     

  227.  
  228.     

  229. Set max core size rlimit
  230.     

  231. <value name="rlimit_core">0</value>
  232.     

  233.  
  234.     

  235. Chroot to this directory at the start, absolute path
  236.     

  237. <value name="chroot"></value>
  238.     

  239.  
  240.     

  241. Chdir to this directory at the start, absolute path
  242.     

  243. <value name="chdir"></value>
  244.     

  245.  
  246.     

  247. Redirect workers' stdout and stderr into main error log.
  248.     

  249. If not set, they will be redirected to /dev/null, according to FastCGI specs
  250.     

  251. <value name="catch_workers_output">yes</value>
  252.     

  253.  
  254.     

  255. How much requests each process should execute before respawn.
  256.     

  257. Useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries.
  258.     

  259. For endless request processing please specify 0
  260.     

  261. Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS
  262.     

  263. <value name="max_requests">102400</value>
  264.     

  265.  
  266.     

  267. Comma separated list of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients that allowed to connect.
  268.     

  269. Equivalent to FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment in original php.fcgi (5.2.2+)
  270.     

  271. Makes sense only with AF_INET listening socket.
  272.     

  273. <value name="allowed_clients">127.0.0.1</value>
  274.     

  275.  
  276.     

  277. Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH
  278.     

  279. All $VARIABLEs are taken from current environment
  280.     

  281. <value name="environment">
  282.     

  283. <value name="HOSTNAME">$HOSTNAME</value>
  284.     

  285. <value name="PATH">/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin</value>
  286.     

  287. <value name="TMP">/tmp</value>
  288.     

  289. <value name="TMPDIR">/tmp</value>
  290.     

  291. <value name="TEMP">/tmp</value>
  292.     

  293. <value name="OSTYPE">$OSTYPE</value>
  294.     

  295. <value name="MACHTYPE">$MACHTYPE</value>
  296.     

  297. <value name="MALLOC_CHECK_">2</value>
  298.     

  299. </value>
  300.     

  301.  
  302.     

  303. </section>
  304.     

  305.  
  306.     

  307. </workers>
  308.     

  309.  
  310.     

  311. </configuration>

 9、启动php-cgi进程,监听127.0.0.1的9000端口,进程数为200(如果服务器内存小于3GB,可以只开启64个进程),用户为www:
 

ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start

  注:/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm还有其他参数,包括:start|stop|quit|restart|reload|logrotate,修改php.ini后不重启php-cgi,重新加载配置文件使用reload。

 


  三、安装Nginx 0.7.61
  1、安装Nginx所需的pcre库:
 

tar zxvf pcre-7.9.tar.gz
cd pcre-7.9/
./configure
make && make install
cd ../

  2、安装Nginx
 

tar zxvf nginx-0.7.61.tar.gz
cd nginx-0.7.61/
./configure –user=www –group=www –prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx –with-http_stub_status_module –with-http_ssl_module
make && make install
cd ../

  3、创建Nginx日志目录
 

mkdir -p /data1/logs
chmod +w /data1/logs
chown -R www:www /data1/logs

  4、创建Nginx配置文件
  ①、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建nginx.conf文件:
 

rm -f /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

  输入以下内容:
 

引用
user www www;

worker_processes 8;

error_log /data1/logs/nginx_error.log crit;

pid /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid;

#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;

events
{
use epoll;
worker_connections 51200;
}

http
{
include mime.types;
default_type application/octet-stream;

#charset gb2312;

server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
client_header_buffer_size 32k;
large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
client_max_body_size 8m;

sendfile on;
tcp_nopush on;

keepalive_timeout 60;

tcp_nodelay on;

fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;
fastcgi_buffers 4 64k;
fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;

gzip on;
gzip_min_length 1k;
gzip_buffers 4 16k;
gzip_http_version 1.0;
gzip_comp_level 2;
gzip_types text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
gzip_vary on;

#limit_zone crawler $binary_remote_addr 10m;

server
{
listen 80;
server_name blog.s135.com;
index index.html index.htm index.php;
root /data0/htdocs/blog;

#limit_conn crawler 20;

location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
{
#fastcgi_pass unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
fastcgi_index index.php;
include fcgi.conf;
}

location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
{
expires 30d;
}

location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
{
expires 1h;
}

log_format access '$remote_addr – $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
'$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
'"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
access_log /data1/logs/access.log access;
}

server
{
listen 80;
server_name www.s135.com;
index index.html index.htm index.php;
root /data0/htdocs/www;

location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
{
#fastcgi_pass unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
fastcgi_index index.php;
include fcgi.conf;
}

log_format wwwlogs '$remote_addr – $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
'$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
'"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
access_log /data1/logs/wwwlogs.log wwwlogs;
}

server
{
listen 80;
server_name status.blog.s135.com;

location / {
stub_status on;
access_log off;
}
}
}

  ②、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建fcgi.conf文件:
 

vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/fcgi.conf

  输入以下内容:
 

引用
fastcgi_param GATEWAY_INTERFACE CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param SERVER_SOFTWARE nginx;

fastcgi_param QUERY_STRING $query_string;
fastcgi_param REQUEST_METHOD $request_method;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_TYPE $content_type;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_LENGTH $content_length;

fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param REQUEST_URI $request_uri;
fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_URI $document_uri;
fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_ROOT $document_root;
fastcgi_param SERVER_PROTOCOL $server_protocol;

fastcgi_param REMOTE_ADDR $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param REMOTE_PORT $remote_port;
fastcgi_param SERVER_ADDR $server_addr;
fastcgi_param SERVER_PORT $server_port;
fastcgi_param SERVER_NAME $server_name;

# PHP only, required if PHP was built with –enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param REDIRECT_STATUS 200;

  5、启动Nginx
 

ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx

 


  四、配置开机自动启动Nginx + PHP
 

vi /etc/rc.local

  在末尾增加以下内容:
 

引用
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx

 


  五、优化Linux内核参数
 

vi /etc/sysctl.conf

  在末尾增加以下内容:
 

引用
# Add
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 65536
net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 32768
net.core.somaxconn = 32768

net.core.wmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
net.core.wmem_max = 16777216

net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retries = 2

net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
#net.ipv4.tcp_tw_len = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1

net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 94500000 915000000 927000000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 3276800

#net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
#net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 120
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65535

  使配置立即生效:
 

/sbin/sysctl -p

 


  六、在不停止Nginx服务的情况下平滑变更Nginx配置
  1、修改/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf配置文件后,请执行以下命令检查配置文件是否正确:
 

/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -t

  如果屏幕显示以下两行信息,说明配置文件正确:
  the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
  the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf was tested successfully

  2、这时,输入以下命令查看Nginx主进程号:
 

ps -ef | grep "nginx: master process" | grep -v "grep" | awk -F ' ' '{print $2}'

  屏幕显示的即为Nginx主进程号,例如:
  6302
  这时,执行以下命令即可使修改过的Nginx配置文件生效:
 

kill -HUP 6302

  或者无需这么麻烦,找到Nginx的Pid文件:
 

kill -HUP `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`

 


  七、编写每天定时切割Nginx日志的脚本
  1、创建脚本/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh
 

vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh

  输入以下内容:
 

引用
#!/bin/bash
# This script run at 00:00

# The Nginx logs path
logs_path="/usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/"

mkdir -p ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/
mv ${logs_path}access.log ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/access_$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y%m%d").log
kill -USR1 `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`

  2、设置crontab,每天凌晨00:00切割nginx访问日志
 

crontab -e

  输入以下内容:
 

引用
00 00 * * * /bin/bash /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh

 

本文固定链接: http://blog.ich8.com/post/40 | 霸王硬上弓's Blog

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该日志由 霸王硬上弓 于2009年08月22日发表在 资料仓库 分类下, 你可以发表评论,并在保留原文地址及作者的情况下引用到你的网站或博客。
原创文章转载请注明: Nginx 0.7.x + PHP 5.2.10(FastCGI)搭建胜过Apache十倍的Web服务器(第5版)[转载] | 霸王硬上弓's Blog

Nginx 0.7.x + PHP 5.2.10(FastCGI)搭建胜过Apache十倍的Web服务器(第5版)[转载]:等您坐沙发呢!

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